International Day of Protection of Rights of Persons with Disabilities is observed on May 5. Persons with disabilities are full-fledged members of society. However, their rights are often being violated. This should not remain unaddressed, because democratic society does not accept discrimination on any grounds.
In the USSR, persons with disabilities were unnoticed and ashamed of. Therefore, former republics of the Soviet Union who stepped on the path of independent development are only starting to learn how to understand and perceive persons with disabilities in a proper manner. This observation can be qualified as one of the ways to draw attention of the society to the existing problem.
According to official figures, approximately 2.5 million persons with disability status live in Ukraine. This number increases yearly. Therefore, one of the goals of this observation is providing conditions for the normal social fulfillment of persons with disabilities so that they can receive education, work and enjoy social benefits along with other members of society.
International Firefighters’ Day was established in 1999 to honor the memory of five firefighters who died in a wildfire in Australia.
The date was chosen in honor of St. Florian, the patron of firefighters, whose memory the Catholic Church recognizes on May 4.
On Dec. 2, 1998, a large wildfire occurred in Linton, Victoria, Australia. Local firefighters called for help. When five firefighters who were sent to help, drove into the fire zone, the wind suddenly changed direction. Their truck was engulfed in flames and all five firefighters were killed.
International Firefighters’ Day was established to honor the memory of this tragic event. On this day, people honor the memory of firefighters who died in the line of duty and show their gratitude and respect to those who risk their lives for saving others.
The symbol of the International Firefighters’ Day is the red and blue ribbon. The ribbon is cut five centimeters long and one centimeter wide, with the two separate colors conjoined at the top. Red color represents fire, blue color represents water. In addition, these colors are used by emergency services in many countries around the world.
International Firefighters’ Day is celebrated not only by firefighters, but everyone in the emergency services.
World Press Freedom Day is celebrated on May 3 since 1993. It was proclaimed by the UN General Assembly in 1993. This decision was taken under the influence of UNESCO. At that time, UNESCO was actively engaged in defending the interests of a free and independent press, which is a significant part of the development of a democratic state. World Press Freedom Day is celebrated by all member states of UNESCO, giving their permission on free expression of opinions on any topics, including power.
Principles proclaimed by the organizers of the World Press Freedom Day are described in the text of the Windhoek Declaration. It has to ensure the observance of the rights of the independent press, the basis of pluralism, etc., on the international level.
Dozens of journalists are killed every year. Most of them are victims of assassinations, many die in conflict zones. Thus, one of the main ideas of the World Press Freedom Day is creating safe conditions for journalism.
Tuna can weigh more than 680 kg and reach a length of more than 4.5 m. The largest bluefin tuna ever caught by spinning was caught off Nova Scotia in 1979. The fish weighed 678.5 kg. In January 2001, fish, that weighed 200 kg, was sold on the Japanese fish market for $173,600. In 2012, 222 kg tuna, caught in Japan, was sold for a record amount of $1.76 million.
On Dec. 2016, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution A/RES/71/124 and invited all member states, UN System Organizations, other international and regional organizations and civil society, including non-governmental organizations, to celebrate the World Tuna Day on May 2.
International Workers’ Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers’ Day in some countries, is celebrated on May 1.
The origins of this celebration are tragic. In 1886, at least four civilians were killed during the mass protests, organized by the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions of the United States and Canada in attempting to impose the eight-hour work day. The tragedy occurred in Chicago. A bomb exploded during the dispersal of the rally at Haymarket Square, killing 7 policemen and 4 protesters. Eight anarchists, who represented the working class, were arrested. Four anarchists were sentenced to death by hanging; two were sentenced to life in prison. One anarchist was sentenced to 15 years in prison; another anarchist, Louis Lingg, committed suicide before his scheduled execution. In 1889, the first congress of the Second International in Paris declared May 1 as Labour Day.
Since its beginning, every Labour Day has been a way of publicizing the social demands of the working class. This is the day of solidarity of those employees who are ready to go on demonstration to declare their rights and needs.
In the USSR, the Labour Day had a slightly different meaning. It was mostly used for propaganda. Visiting the rallies dedicated to Labour Day was the responsibility of each worker.
Jazz originated in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a synthesis of African and European cultures. Jazz remains the unique form of musical art that unites races, nationalities and erases borders between people and states.
International Dance Day is celebrated on April 29. This holiday unites all those who can not imagine their lives without dance. The celebration was established by the Dance Committee of the International Theatre Institute (ITI) and takes place every year on the anniversary of the birth of Jean-Georges Noverre, the creator of modern ballet.
World Day for Safety of Health at Work is celebrated on April 28. This event was established by the International Labour Organization to promote the idea of workplace health and safety in modern society. One of the main aspects of this idea is the reduction of the number of occupational fatalities.
Samuel Morse, an American inventor and painter, was born on April 27. He is famous for his contribution to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system and the Morse code.
The anniversary of the Chernobyl disaster is an important international memorial day. It is called the International Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Radiation Accidents and Catastrophes.
Administrative Professionals’ Day is celebrated annually on the Wednesday of the last full week of April.
Key figures who created the holiday were the president of the National Secretaries Association, Mary Barrett, president of Dictaphone Corporation, C. King Woodbridge, public relations account executives at Young & Rubicam, Harry F. Klemfuss and Daren Ball. The holiday, originally known as National Secretaries’ Day, was firstly observed in 1952 on June 4. Later, its traditions crossed the ocean. The event was established as Administrative Professionals’ Day and moved to the last full week of April.
Today, this holiday is celebrated by all kinds of office employees: assistant managers, office managers, secretaries, administrative assistants and other administrative support professionals. All these people are united by one profession, which is one of the most demanded in the world.
In addition to the Administrative Professionals’ Day, many national holidays dedicated to the profession of secretary are also celebrated in many countries.
National DNA Day is celebrated on April 25. It commemorates the day in 1953, when James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin and their colleagues revealed double helix of DNA in the article “Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: a Structure for Desoxyribose Nucleic Acid”.
International Youth Solidarity Day is celebrated on April 24. This holiday appeared on the initiative of the World Federation of Democratic Youth in 1957 in order to draw attention of the media and state authorities to the problems of the younger generation.
Today, this event unites various public youth organizations, profile ministries, municipalities and active young people who want to live in a healthy and conscious society.
This day is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the self-realization of the younger generation. This applies both to the material and spiritual aspects of the lives of young people. In addition, the need to respect the rights of young people, to improve the quality of life of young families, to create special programs for improving the living conditions of young people and their professional development are mentioned within the framework of this event. The greatest expectations of the development of technical and intellectual potential are always put on the younger generation.
World Book and Copyright Day has been celebrated annually on April 23 since 1996.
This holiday aims to promote the enjoyment of books and reading. Each year, on April 23, celebrations take place all over the world to recognize the magical power of books: a link between the past and the future, a bridge between generations and across cultures. On this occasion, UNESCO and international organizations representing the three main sectors of the book industry: publishers, booksellers and libraries, choose a city that becomes the World Book Capital to maintain, through its own initiatives, the impetus of the Day’s celebrations until 23 April of the following year.
The main celebration takes place annually at UNESCO headquarters. Publishers, booksellers and artists are invited to share their passion for books and reading, to conduct typography, illustration, book engraving and book publishing workshops. UNESCO sincerely invites to nourish the books as a valuable tool for knowledge sharing, mutual understanding and openness in the world of diversity.
UN English Language Day is observed annually on April 23.
The event was established by the UN in 2010 to celebrate multilingualism and cultural diversity, as well as to promote the equal use of all six official languages of the UN.
23 April was chosen because it is the date traditionally observed as both the birthday and date of death of William Shakespeare.
Similar events are based on the other UN’s five official languages.
Earth Day is a large-scale event, aimed at raising awareness of the existing and future problems of our planet.
The International Mother Earth Day, celebrated on April 22, can be named the most global holiday on the Earth. It is supported by the United Nations and reminds that harmony with nature and the Earth is a key factor to achieve a just balance among the economic, social and environmental needs of present and future generations of humanity.
Astronomy Day was started in 1973 by Doug Berger, the president of the Astronomical Association of Northern California. Later, Berger proposed to create associations of astronomy enthusiasts.
The main idea of this event is to provide means of interaction between the general public and various astronomy enthusiasts, groups and professionals.
Chinese Language Day is observed annualy on April 20. The event was established in 2010 by UNESCO to pay tribute to Cangjie, a mythical figure who is presumed to have invented Chinese characters. It is believed that Cangjie was an official historian of the Yellow Emperor. He laid the foundation of Chinese characters by developing a series of pictograms. Later, they became widely used and replaced the traditional rope knot method.
This holiday was established in England in 1984. Snowdrops bloom from January to April, depending on the climatic zone. In England, these flowers bloom in the middle of April, so the holiday is celebrated on April 19. In Ukraine, these beautiful flowers bloom till March 21.
The International Day for Monuments and Sites is an international observance, held annually on April 18. The aim is to promote public awareness of the diversity of cultural heritage, their vulnerability and the efforts, required for their preservation for future generations.
On April 17, many countries join the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to participate in the World Hemophilia Day, an awareness day for hemophilia and other bleeding disorders.
On 16 April 1710, the Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk (Pacts and Constitutions of Rights and Freedoms of the Zaporizhian Host), the first written constitution in the world, was issued in the city of Bendery.
World Day of Culture was established in honour of the signing of the Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific Institutions and Historic Monuments, also known as Roerich Pact, in 1935.
On Sunday, 14 April 1912, British passenger liner Titanic collided with an iceberg. The ship was on its maiden voyage from Southampton to New York City. The impact with the iceberg produced a huge opening in Titanic’s hull, almost 100 meters in length. At 2:27 am on April 15, Titanic sank.
Titanic had an estimated 2,224 passengers and crew members on board. 1,517 of them were killed. Most of the survivors were women and children.
Sinking of the Titanic is one of the largest maritime disasters in history. In 1985, a joint US-French expedition discovered a sunken vessel at a distance of about 800 kilometers from Newfoundland.
World Rock-n-Roll Day is a holiday of people, for whom rock and roll has become not only music, but also style and a way of life.
International Day of Aviation and Cosmonautics was one the favorite holidays in the USSR. It is still celebrated on April 12, but its scale in the countries of the former Soviet Union has significantly decreased. Once, the April 12 symbolized the triumph of Soviet-era cosmonautics, the most important achievement of which was the space flight of Yuri Gagarin.
Today, this holiday is devoted to people who made a huge step in the development of space technology, launching satellites, developing spacecraft and sending it to research other space objects.
This day is carried out at the initiative of World Health Organization and aims to increase the public awareness about Parkinson’s disease, as well as to support parkinsonian patients and their families and contribute to overcoming this terrible illness.
Bright Tuesday is the third day of Easter Week. On Bright Tuesday people visit their relatives, friends and acquaintances. Besides, on this particular day girls can get back on boys for Water Plunged Monday.
Monday after Easter is called Water Plunged Monday. Ancient tradition requires the boys to pour water on girls.
Orthodox Easter is considered the greatest Christian holiday. On this day, the Son of God was resurrected from the dead.
Orthodox Easter is celebrated on the first Sunday after the spring full moon. Jesus was resurrected, so, on Easter it was agreed to greet people with the words “Christ is risen!” to which the other person answers “He is risen indeed!”
Orthodox Easter involves the sanctification of Easter cakes and colored eggs during the feast rite. Many countries are very fond of this celebration because it symbolizes life, hope and salvation.
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary is celebrated on the 7th of April. It is a day that marks the conception of Christ and the beginning of atonement.
This celebration is associated with the story of the announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she would conceive and become the mother of Jesus, the Son of God. From Church retellings it is known that Mary read the Book of Isaiah. The book mentioned the coming birth of the Messiah. Mary thought that she would be ready to serve the woman who will give birth to Christ.
Great Friday is an important date for Christians. It falls on the last Friday before the Orthodox Easter and symbolizes the martyrdom of Jesus. On Great Friday, the suffering of Jesus for the salvation of humanity is remembered by divine worships. Believers adhere to a strict fasting. They cannot work physically and attend entertainment events.
Orthodox Christians celebrate the Maundy (Holy) Thursday before Easter. This day is a reminder to humanity of the Last Supper, when Jesus called upon all his Apostles to manifest love and humility towards each other. He washed the Apostles’ feet and performed the ordinance of the Holy Communion.
One of the traditions of a celebration of the Maundy Thursday is the cleaning of the house from the garbage, accumulated in winter. Also, it is better to wake up before sunrise to swim. Swimming symbolizes absolution from sins.
Photo from prozoro.info website
Stray Animals Day is celebrated on April 4. It was initiated to show sympathy, take care, and act for stray animals all over our planet.
World celebrates the birthday of the barcode on April 3.
Barcode is a machine-readable representation of data. Traditional barcodes represent data by varying the widths and spacings of parallel lines. The data contains information about the product.
Barcode was invented by a young engineer David Collins.
In 1973, the Universal Product Code (UPC), which promotes the use of barcodes in commerce and industry, was established in the United States.
Since 1977, a similar system, called the European Article Numbering (EAN) is used for the identification of consumer goods in Western Europe.
Photo from knygadruk.blogspot website
International Children’s Book Day is celebrated on April 2. It is a yearly event, sponsored by the International Board on Books for Young People. Founded in 1967, the day is observed on or around Hans Christian Andersen’s birthday. This holiday emphasizes the extremely important role of the children’s books in shaping the spiritual and intellectual face of new generations.
April Fools’ Day (also called All Fools’ Day) is celebrated on April 1. There are many versions about the origin of this annual celebration. Some scholars claim that the holiday, known today as All Fools’ Day, was celebrated for the first time in England. Others believe that the it originated in France or Mexico.
Modern variation of the holiday is celebrated by performing practical jokes on each other and comedy performances. Usually, festivals celebrating humor are organized on this day. The most famous among them is Humorina, the annual festival of humour, held in Odesa, Ukraine.
The World Theatre Day is an international day to honour theatre as a cultural heritage and pay tribute to all theatre workers including stage directors, actors, stage designers, ticket collectors etc.
The World Poetry Day is celebrated on March 21. It was declared by the decision of the 30th session of UNESCO in 1999.
It was first celebrated on March 21, 2000.
International Women’s Day is annually celebrated on March 8.
It was initiated as a proletarian feminist International Working Women’s Day. First, it was a political holiday. It is common for the countries of the former Soviet Union.
It was first celebrated in 1909 in the United States on the initiative of the Socialist Party of America. During the 20th century, the Soviet Union and the socialist countries celebrated it as a state holiday.
In 1977, on the initiative of the Soviet Union, by the United Nations’ decision it was recognized as an international day; it was officially named as the International Day for the Fighting Women’s Rights and International Peace.
The day became a symbol of feminism and antisexism. In some countries where this holidayis celebrated, women receive gifts and flowers. Most feminists, however, find this gesture inappropriate, because they believe that this day should turn attention to sexual equality.
Some countries celebrate this day similar to the West European Mother’s Day and Valentine’s Day. Some leaders of the Orthodox Church and religious communities do not recognize this holiday for its political background.
February 28 annually marks the World Rare Disease Day. Its goal is to raise awareness for rare diseases, their impact on patients’ lives in all aspects, to identify rare diseases as one of the priorities for the health system, to draw attention to the development of research needed for safe and effective therapy and treatment of rare diseases. The day aims at showing that, despite the scarcity of such patients, they have the right to medical care, education, access to public life. It also aims at raising awareness of rare diseases and improving access to medicines needed for treatment of rare diseases.
On February 27, 1494, the Great Lithuanian prince Alexander granted Magdeburg Law to Kyiv, which provided Kyiv with the status of self-government.
Magdeburg Law was the most widespread legal system of local self-government in medieval Central Europe.
On February 26, 1994, at the XVII Olympic Winter Games in Lillehammer (Norway), a 16-year-old figure skater Oksana Baiul became the first Olympic champion in the history of independent Ukraine.
Oksana is considered the youngest Ukrainian Olympic champion.
The Ukrainian woman has long been living in the United States, but her national consciousness encouraged her to voice support for her compatriots during the Revolution of Dignity.
On February 25, Ukrainian Armed Forces’ Aviation Engineering Service day is marked. The holidau was established to maintain the prestige of the service, to mobilize engineering and technical staff, to continue the aviation tradition and to improve the military-patriotic education of the military and youth.
On February 24, 1881, construction of the Panama Canal started. It became one of the most challenging construction projects in the history.
The Panama Canal made it possible to shorten the sea route from New York City to San Francisco from 22.5 thousand km to 9.5 thousand km.
On February 23, 1878, an abstract art painter and the author of “Black Square” painting Kazimir Malevich was born in Kyiv. Malevich is the founder of Suprematism, one of the first abstract art movements in the modern history.
February 22 marks International Day for Victims of Crime. It has been marked since 1990, when the UK government published “The Charter for Victims of Crime”.
Social rehabilitation of victims of crime is one of the key problems in the modern society. This day also aims at providing the victims with compensation for material and non-pecuniary damage.
International Mother Language Day is celebrated every year on February 21, starting from 2000. The main purpose of celebrating this day is to promote the awareness of language and cultural diversity. It was first announced in the 30th session of the UNESCO General Conference held on October, 26 -November 17, 1999 in Paris.
About half of the 6,000 languages spoken in the world are under threat, UNESCO supports languages, as they are for the cultural identity of people. In addition, the organization believes that studying foreign languages and multilingualism are the ways to mutual understanding and mutual respect.
The annual celebration of this day aims at drawing attention to minorities with fewer than 10,000 people who actively speak their native language. Often these languages are not transmitted to the next generation and fall into oblivion. Many languages spoken by fewer than 100 people are not documented.
On February, 20, Ukraine honours the memory of those who heroically died in the struggle against the Yanukovych’s authoritarian regime and marks Heavenly Hundred Heroes Day.
This memorable date was set by the decree of Ukraine’s President Petro Poroshenko on February, 11, 2015.
At this day, commemorative events are held in many cities of Ukraine. In Kyiv, flowers are laid to the Alley of the Heroes of Heavenly Hundred. An ancient Lemko song “Plyve Kacha” (The Duck is Floating “) performed by Pikkardiyska Tertsiya band became an unofficial anthem of the “Heavenly Hundred”.
On February 19, 2018, the Great Lent starts. It prepares Christians to meet the Resurrection of Christ (Easter).
The Great Lent begins seven weeks before Easter and consists of the forty day fast and Holy Week, a week before Easter. It’s the time of repentance, reflections and prayers. During the Great Lent, the Christian church calls on believers to avoid eating meat, milk, eggs, and fish.
On February, 18, the Church honours the Holy Theodosius, Archbishop of Chernihiv.
Having become an archbishop, Saint Theodosius was involved in strengthening Orthodoxy: under his leadership new monasteries and temples were built, the level of education and piety of future priests were controlled. Much attention was paid to Chernihiv spiritual schools.
By the way, according to weather lore, if this day is frosty, then spring will be warm and summer will be dry and hot.
On February, 17, Europe celebrates the World Cat Day. The day was initiated by the Italian journalist Claudio Angeletti. This national and public day has been celebrated since 1992. February is ruled by Aquarius characterized as the sign of free and independent spirits in the Italian cultural tradition, that’s why the holiday is marked in this month.
On February 16, 1813, Ukrainian and Russian opera singer (baritone), playwright, composer, actor and dramatist Semen Hulak-Artemovsky was born in the town of Horodyshche. He was the author of one of the first opera with Ukrainian-language libretto – “A Zaporozhian (Cossack) Beyond the Danube”
He laid the foundations for Ukrainian classical opera. Also, Hulak-Artemovsky was the author for such songs as “Sycamore is Standing over Water” and “I Don’t Want to Sleep”.
The Presentation of the Lord, or the Meeting of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Latin Præsentatio Jesu in Templo, is one of the greatest Christian holidays celebrated on the 40th day after Christmas, on February 2 (15).
St. Valentine’s Day is annually celebrated on February 14. Its name comes from St. Valentine remembered by the Catholic Church in this day liturgy. An important attribute of the day is a Valentine’s Day card with declaration of love.
It is believed that the first Valentine’s Day card was made by Charles, the Duke of Orleans. He sent it to his wife, when he was imprisoned in the London Tower after the Battle of Azenkur. A few years later, King Henry V requested a writer to make a valentine’s card for Catherine of Valois.
On February 13, radio fans and radio companies from all over the world celebrate their professional holiday – the World Radio Day.
The day was initiated by Spain, and was finally approved by UNESCO on November 3, 2011.
February 12, or January 30 by the old style, the Orthodox world celebrates the cathedral feast of the Three Holy Fathers. This day honours the memory of the three prominent hierarchs and preachers of the Eastern Christian church, namely, Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian and John Chrysostom.
The feast’s main significance is to show believers that conciliarity and serving each other are fundamental principles of the Christian faith. The doctrine emphasizes that all are equal before God and there are no more or less important people.
February 11 marks the World Day of the Sick. This day is an evidence of community’s support of all people affected by various diseases.
This day was instituted by Pope St. John Paul II. According to him, its goal is providing better care for the sick throughout the world and helping the weak, who need to relieve their suffering.
This day is marked on February, 11, because on this day in Lourdes (France) people watched the Marian apparition. The Virgin Mary healed those who suffered, after that she became known as the savior of the sick.
On February 10, 1810, the solemn opening of the Odesa Opera and Ballet Theatre took place. The one-act opera “New Family” by Frelich and the vaudeville “Mourning, or the Consoled Widow” presented by Porfiriy Fortunatov’s troupe were the first performances.
It’s the oldest opera house in Ukraine, as well as the best theatre in Odesa and Ukraine at the time of its construction.
The composers P .Tchaikovsky, M. Rimsky-Korsakov, S.Rakhmaninov, the singers Enrico Caruso, Fedor Shaliapin, Solomia Krushelnytska, the dancers Anna Pavlova and Isidora Duncan worked in the theatre
Aleksandr Pushkin wrote about the Odesa theatre in his novel “Yevgeniy Onegin.”
February 9 has become a recognized professional holiday of dentists. This day marks the World Dentist’s Day.
Celebration of the Dentist’s Day is associated with Apollonia Virgin, who died as a martyr on February, 9, 249 A.D. In 300 A.D., Apollonia was canonized as a holy martyr.
Apollonia who believed in Christ, was subjected to cruel torture and was forced to renounce Christianity, the woman‘s teeth were pulled out and she was threatened to burn alive. Apollonia asked to untie her and rushed to the fire. Her suffering impressed her contemporaries and descendants so that the legend appeared that you can get rid of the toothache by saying the name of Apollonia.
On February 8, 1921, the state steppe reserve “Askania-Nova” was founded in Kherson region. Askania-Nova Private Reserve first appeared in 1898. It was established by the Prussian colonist Friedrich Falz-Fein.
In 1921, the Council of People’s Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR declared Askania-Nova the State steppe reserve of the Ukrainian SSR. Askania-Nova was tasked with preserving and studying the nature of the virgin steppe, as well as acclimatizing and studying more species of animals and plants of national economic significance. A scientific steppe station, zoological station and other scientific institutions were created within Askania-Nova. The zoo and botanical garden were expanded.
Currently, the reserve includes protected steppe zone, acclimatization zoo and arboretum.
On February 7, 1483, the book “Prognostic Assessment of the Current 1483” written by Doctor of Arts and Medicine of the University of Bologna, Ukrainian Yuriy Drohobych, was published in the Rome Eucharius Zilber (Frank) print house.
It was an astrological pamphlet. It started with Drohobych’s poetic dedication to the Pope Sixtus IV. The author was concerned about the fate of the human race, he praised intelligence which gave people “mighty power”.
Drohobych’s treatise included information of various natural sciences. For example, the time of two future lunar eclipses and phases of the moon were determined with accuracy up to an hour and a minute, certain indications of the visible movement of the planets were given there.
February 6 marks the Day of Bartenders (in honour of St. Amanda). It became a professional holiday for bartenders and restaurant workers in many countries.
St. Amanda was the patron saint of winemakers and brewers, bar and restaurant owners, and bartenders. St. Amanda was known for the evangelization of the wine regions of France, Germany, and Flanders.
On February 5, 1952, New York City became the first city in the world to start using three-coloured traffic lights.
The first automatic street traffic system without direct human involvement was developed and patented by Earnest Sirrine from Chicago in 1910. His system used the words Stop and Proceed, but did not light up. The first electric traffic light was invented by Lester Wire of Utah. In 1912 he developed (but not patented) a traffic light with two round electric signals of red and green colours.
On February 4, the World Cancer Day is marked. It was proclaimed by the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).
Its goal is to raise awareness of cancer as the most terrible disease of modern civilization, to draw attention to the prevention, detection and treatment of this disease, to urge politicians and organizations to treat cancer as a political priority.
In 2016-18, the World Cancer Day is marked under the slogan “We can. I can.”
On February 3, 1966, the unmanned Soviet Luna 9 spacecraft made soft landing on the Moon for the first time, and the first photographs from its surface were passed. The landing occurred at 18:45:30 UT in the western part of the Oceanus Procellarum, north-east of the Cavalier Crater.
In honour of this event, that small plot was called the Plain of Landing in 1970.
On February 2, Christians of the Western rite celebrate the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord. It is celebrated in honour of the meeting Child Jesus with righteous elder Simeon in the Jerusalem Temple and symbolizes the purification of Virgin Mary on the 40th day from the birth of Christ.
This event is described by evangelist Luke. According to him, when parents brought little Christ to the temple for sanctifying, at the door they were welcomed by holy Simeon who had a special revelation that he would not die before he had seen Christ.
In the Roman Catholic tradition, this feast is called Candlemas (Chandeleur), which means enlightenment. It symbolizes the purification of Virgin Mary. That is why in the western tradition, unlike the eastern, this feast belongs to the Theotokos. The attention is focused not on the meeting with Simeon, but on the words said by him “Jesus is salvation, the light to lighten the gentiles.”
The Feast of the Presentation of the Lord also symbolizes the end of the Christmas holidays and the meeting of spring.
Annually, on February 1, the United States celebrates the National Freedom Day. The holiday was initiated in connection with the fateful event in the history of the country in 1865: the Congress resolution on the introduction of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States on the abolition of slavery was signed by the U.S. President Abraham Lincoln.
The holiday is national, so it is celebrated in all states.